Know each of the processes about the phenology of Peruvian quinoa, as well as the duration of each stage. Phenology of quinoa studies the visible external changes of plants during their vegetative and reproductive development. It should be noted that the duration of the phenological phases depends heavily on environmental factors and soil moisture in agricultural campaigns.
The seedling emerges from the ground and spreads the cotyledonic leaves, in the furrow seedlings are observed in the form of sharp rows. This depends on the humidity of the soil; if it is wet, the seed emerges on the fourth or sixth day of sowing, if it is loamy-sandy, it would resist up to 7 days.
Two true leaves
The 2 true, extended leaves have a lanceolate shape and are in the apical bud the next pair of leaves. This occurs 10 to 15 days after planting and shows rapid growth in the roots.
Four true leaves
There are 2 pairs of extended leaves and the green cotyledonic leaves are still present, being in the apical bud the following leaves of the apex. At the beginning of axillary bud formation of the first pair of leaves, it occurs 25 to 30 days after sowing.
Six true leaves
There are 3 pairs of extended true leaves and the cotyledonic leaves turn yellowish. This occurs 35 to 45 days after sowing, in which a protection of the vegetative apex is noted by the more adult leaves.
We identify 8 real extended leaves with the presence of axillary leaves until the third knot. The cotyledonic leaves fall and leave scars on the stem. There is presence of inflorescence protected by the leaves without exposing the panicle, occurs from 45 to 50 days of planting.
Start of «panojamiento«
The inflorescence is noticeable emerging from the apex of the plant, observing around agglomeration of small leaves. These cover the panicle in three quarters and occur from 55 to 60 days of planting. Yellowing of the first pair of true leaves.
The inflorescence clearly protrudes above the leaves, the glomeruli that make it up being noticed. It is observed in the glomeruli of the base individualized floral buttons and occurs 65 to 75 days after sowing.
The apical hermaphroditic flower opens showing the separated stamens, occurs 75 to 80 days after sowing. This phase is quite sensitive to drought with frost, and you can notice in the glomeruli the anthers protected by the perigonium of a lemon-green color.
50% of the flowers of the panicle inflorescence are open, occurring 80 to 90 days after sowing. This phase is very sensitive to frost and hailstorms, flowering is observed at noon when there is intense sunlight, in the morning and at sunset is closed.
The fruits found in the glomeruli of the panicle, when pressed, explode and let out a milky liquid, occurs from 100 to 130 days of sowing. In this phase the water deficit is detrimental to the yield by drastically decreasing the grain filling.
The grains when pressed have a pasty white consistency, occurs from 130 to 160 days of sowing.
The grains when pressed have a pasty white consistency, occurs from 130 to 160 days of sowing. The grain formed is pressed by the nails, presents resistance to penetration, occurs from 160 to 180 days or more after sowing.