Quinoa is an Andean grain that has a wide genetic variability, which allows it to adapt to various environmental conditions and is cultivated from sea level to 4,000 meters above sea level.
In addition, this grain is characterized by being very tolerant to adverse climatic factors. Well, it adapts to climates from the desert to hot and dry climates. Likewise, it can grow with relative humidity from 40% to 88%, and supports temperatures from -8 ° C to 38 ° C.
Peru has three potential production areas: the Puno highlands -which houses the largest area and volume of production-, the inter-Andean valleys and the coast, where commercial varieties from the highlands have been adapted.
According to the National Institute of Agrarian Innovation (INIA) there are around 100 cultivars of quinoa, whose grains are prepared in various ways for direct consumption and transformed into multiple derivatives.
This organism has made available to agricultural producers varieties of this improved grain that responds to the technological demand of the producing regions of the country.
The improved varieties of quinoa obtained by INIA are: Salcedo INIA, Illpa INIA, INIA 415-Pasankalla, INIA 420-Negra Collana, INIA 427-Amarilla Sacaca and INIA 431-Altiplano.
To these varieties are added those generated by Peruvian universities: Blanca de Junín, Amarilla Maranganí, Blanca de Juli, Kankolla, Hulhuas, Rosada de Junín, Huacariz, Ayacuchana INIA, Mantaro, Rosada de Yanamango, Cheweca and Rosada Taraco, which widely used by farmers and with high demand in the local, national and international market.
Finally, last year a new variety «INIA 441-Señor del Huerto» was added, which was developed in the Ayacucho region. This grain has a high protein content and quality, as well as a high productive yield.
Well, it is characterized by having a better average yield in the producers’ field, producing from 2.95 to 3.20 tons per hectare (t / ha), with a harvest potential of up to 4.03 tons per hectare.