The origins of quinoa come from the ancient cultures of the Andes, in the high plateaus of Bolivia and Peru since pre-Hispanic times.
Origins of quinoa. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an Andean grain considered the main food of the ancient cultures of the Andes. It wasdomesticated and cultivated in the high plateaus of Bolivia and Peru since pre-Hispanic times (more than 5,000 years ago).
It is a oligocentric species with a widely distributed and diversified center of origin. However, the Lake Titicaca basin is considered the center of conservation and the area of greatest diversity and genetic variability.
In the ceramics of the Tiahuanaco culture, evidence of the use of this grain was found. Which had the quinoa plant represented with several panicles along the stem. Therefore, it is estimated that it was one of the most primitive varieties of this superfood.
It should be noted that this pre-Inca culture developed on the shores of Lake Titicaca and was characterized by developing a series of agricultural techniques and technologies in the face of the difficult geographical and climatic conditions surrounding the area.
Thus, they designed aqueducts, canal systems, dams and also artificial lagoons or ‘cochas’, which allowed the development of a favorable climate for the cultivation of quinoa, olluco, among other foods.
Production and export
Currently, Peru is the world’s leading exporter and producer of quinoa, followed by Bolivia. Both countries represent 90% of the global production of this Andean grain, being one of the products that can contribute to combat the current Covid-19 pandemic. This is a very important factor because this andean grain can become a great ally to streghten our immune system.
According to reports from the Ministry of Agriculture (Minagri), the regions that produce the most quinoa are Puno (44%), Ayacucho (17.6%), Apurímac (12.6%), Arequipa (9.4%), Cusco (4.7%), Junín (3.9%), Huancavelica (2.5%), La Libertad (1.7%) and Cajamarca (1.3%).